Scoring and aging are very difficult and alot of the guess work gets more accurate as you get to know the deer in your area. Aging the deer that you take from year to year will help with this. Everyone does both a little different, but there are traits that can help you get started.
Scoring: I try to judge with either the ears or length of the eyes to nose. Most pictures or stances will give you the chance to utilize one or the other. On the hoof, I tend to do the same, but I also go by what my experience has shown me. Main beam and mass are probably the most difficult. I usually use 20" as a standard for mature deer. If the beams appear long and extend toward the nose, I will add a couple of inches. If they appear to just stop, I deduct a few.
Take the deer in the second pic. I judge him as a young deer. With that in mind, his main beams do not appear to be long and they appear to stop short of average. Take into account the style of rack (high rack, low rack, do the beams go back off his head before making the curve, do the beams curve in at the ends, etc) I would guess his around 17-18".
Age: Very much debated, but there are signs that you can look for. Belly line, where the jaw starts, length of the face, width of the brisket, color of the hocks, do the legs look long or short and stubby, width of his back, callus on his knees, scarring, and the list goes on. Looking at any one item will not do it, but a combination should get you close.
From the second picture you posted, you can notice the face looks long, and the legs don't have the stubby look. His belly is fairly flat, and there is not a big difference between the front end and the rear. Hocks are small, but turning black. No callouses on the knees and no scarring, so isn't really old and hasnt started serious fighting yet. That far into November, you should expect a larger neck on an older deer.
None of it is a science and no one is right all the time, but you can get close and learn as you go. There are some folks on this forum that are great at teaching and willing.
So stick around, make some guesses and watch some of the post. You can get some great info. Good luck